Did Stoicism Age Well?

Four Different Universes

Four different universes, take your pick.

1. Dawkin’s universe. It’s not a very benevolent universe. It can care less about you. It’s blind and pitiless but it did give you genes that use you as a host to spread themselves. Nature is red in tooth and claw but just be happy you’re not a lion’s lunch.

2. Spinoza’s universe. It doesn’t play dice. It unfolds due do its own plans. It’s both intelligent and material. The more you understand it, the more you will live in harmony with it and love it. It doesn’t give you free will though.

3. Zeno’s Universe. It is benevolent and reasoning. It gave humans reason and the ability to have virtue and find happiness. It also allows for free will.

4. Alfred North Whitehead’s Universe. It is a very creative and spontaneous universe. It cares very deeply about sentient life. It’s very sentient and caring. Prayer can actually influence it but not compel it. So don’t be surprised if all your prayers aren’t answered. Not only is there free will but there’s libertarian free will.